Creates a raster representation of vector or point cloud input features. For vector features the fme_color attribute sets pixel color, over a solid background fill. Point clouds may be rendered using their color or intensity components.
- Creating raster images from vector data with a simple, solid background.
- Creating raster representations of point cloud data, using either color or intensity.
How does it work?
The ImageRasterizer receives point, line, and area geometries or point clouds, and “draws” them onto a single output raster feature.
For vector input features, the fme_color attribute determines the pixel color in the raster. Line weights are not supported, and features will be drawn at a width of one (1) pixel.
Polygon features that do not have a fill color defined (fme_fill_color) will be filled with their outline color (fme_color).
For point clouds, pixel coloring may be done using either the color or intensity component.
Background fill color, alpha value, and nodata options are available, as well as anti-aliasing. A variety of options is available for raster interpretation, including RGB variants, gray scales, and single color and alpha bands.
The size of the output raster may be defined by number of rows and columns, or by specifying the size of a single cell (pixel) in ground units. The geographic extent covered by the raster may be either determined by the input features or manually specified.
Features with no color attribute (or point clouds without an intensity component, if selected) will be discarded and output via the <Rejected> port.
In this example, we will create a raster representation of a DWG file containing bike path lines. As the CAD file has a color attribute already associated with each line, FME assigns that color to the fme_color attribute on reading. (Other formats may need to have colors assigned in the workspace - consider using the FeatureColorSetter).
The bike path features are routed into a Bufferer, and then to an ImageRasterizer.
The buffer amount is set to 25 (meters, in ground units), producing polygons that will be more visible in the output raster than single-pixel width lines.
In the parameters dialog, we set the output raster size to be calculated at 1 cell (pixel) per meter (ground units), both vertically and horizontally. The Interpretation Type is RGBA32, and the default settings producing a white background, and anti-aliasing turned off.
One raster feature is output.
A closer look shows the shapes of the buffered lines. The selected cell’s attributes include RGBA color values.
LiDAR intensity values can be used to create a raster that resembles black-and-white imagery, useful for context when conventional imagery isn’t available.
In this example, we start by routing the LAS data into an ImageRasterizer.
In the parameters dialog, we specify the size of the output raster - this time, defining the output dimensions in overall height and width of 1000 by 1000 cells (pixels). Interpretation Type is set to Gray16, and the Point Cloud Input Component is Intensity.
Note that a point cloud intensity raster can be written to any of the Interpretation Types, including color, but will still appear as a gray scale (with according individual band values).
The output raster represents intensity values on a gray scale.
- Lines and points may be buffered prior to entering the transformer to increase their visibility if necessary, which would depend on the output raster size, intended viewing scale, and feature size. Some experimentation may be necessary, using the Bufferer.
- To produce elevation rasters, use the NumericRasterizer.
- To overlay vector features onto an existing raster, use the VectorOnRasterOverlayer.
- For fine control over vector styling for raster output, consider using the MapnikRasterizer.
Choosing a Raster Transformer
FME has an extensive selection of transformers for working with raster data. They can be generally categorized as working with whole rasters, bands, cells or palettes, and those designed for workflow control or combing raster with vector data.
For information on raster geometry and properties, see Rasters (IFMERaster).
Working with Rasters
|RasterCellOriginSetter||Sets the raster's cell origin.|
Applies a convolution filter (sometimes called a kernel or lens) to raster features and outputs the results.
|RasterExpressionEvaluator||Evaluates expressions on each cell in a raster or pair of rasters, including algebraic operations and conditional statements.|
|RasterExtentsCoercer||Replaces the geometry of input raster features with a polygon covering the extents of the raster.|
|RasterGCPExtractor||Extracts the coordinate system and the Ground Control Points (GCP) from the raster feature and exposes them as attributes.|
|RasterGCPSetter||Sets the Ground Control Points (GCP) on a raster with the specified Column (pixel), Row (line), X Coordinate, Y Coordinate and Z Coordinate.|
|RasterGeoreferencer||Georeferences a raster using the specified parameters.|
|RasterHillshader||Generates a shaded relief effect, useful for visualizing terrain.|
Alters the underlying interpretation of the bands of the raster geometry on the input features, using the specified conversion options.
For example, an input raster feature with three bands of interpretation (UInt16, Gray8, and Real64) could be converted to a raster feature with three bands of interpretation (Red8, Green8, and Blue8) or four bands of interpretation (Red16, Green16, Blue16, and Alpha16) in a single operation.
|RasterMosaicker||Merges multiple raster features into a single raster feature.|
|RasterPropertyExtractor||Extracts the geometry properties of a raster feature and exposes them as attributes.|
|RasterPyramider||Resamples rasters to multiple resolutions, based on either number of levels or dimensions of the smallest output raster.|
|RasterResampler||Resamples rasters, based on specified output dimensions, cell size in ground units, or percentage of original, and interpolates new cell values.|
Applies the raster rotation angle on the input raster properties to the rest of the raster properties and data values.
The expected input is a raster with a non-zero rotation angle and the expected output is a rotated raster with a rotation angle of 0.0. It is expected that the input raster properties will be modified to conform the output raster properties for a raster rotated by the given angle.
Applying a rotation angle is primarily done for compatibility with other processing and writers that cannot handle a rotation angle.
|RasterSubsetter||Clips raster features using pixel bounds instead of ground coordinates, and optionally adds cells around the perimeter.|
|RasterTiler||Splits each input raster into a series of tiles by specifying either a tile size in cells/pixels or the number of tiles.|
|RasterToPolygonCoercer||Creates polygons from input raster features. One polygon is output for each contiguous area of pixels with the same value in the input raster.|
|WebMapTiler||Creates a series of image tiles that can be utilized by web mapping applications such as Bing™ Maps, Google Maps™, or Web Map Tile Service. This is done by resampling rasters to various different resolutions and then splitting them into tiles.|
Working with Bands
|RasterBandAdder||Adds a new band to a raster feature.|
|RasterBandCombiner||Merges coincidental raster features into a single output raster feature, preserving and appending all bands.|
Alters the interpretation type of individual raster bands, converting cell values if necessary.
Removes all unselected bands from a raster feature.
|RasterBandMinMaxExtractor||Extracts the minimum and maximum band values, palette keys, and palette values from a raster feature, and adds them to a list attribute.|
|RasterBandNameSetter||Sets the band name of selected bands on a raster, making raster contents simpler to understand compared to band numbers.|
|RasterBandNodataRemover||Removes the existing nodata identifier from selected bands of a raster feature. Any values previously equal to the nodata value are considered valid data.|
|RasterBandNodataSetter||Sets a new nodata value on selected bands of a raster feature.|
|RasterBandOrderer||Specifies the required order of bands in a raster. Bands are reordered according to the input band indices.|
|RasterBandPropertyExtractor||Extracts the band and palette properties of a raster feature and exposes them as attributes.|
|RasterBandRemover||Removes any selected bands from a raster feature.|
|RasterBandSeparator||Separates bands or unique band and palette combinations, and outputs either individual raster features or a single new raster feature containing all combinations.|
|RasterStatisticsCalculator||Calculates statistics on raster bands and adds the results as attributes.|
Working with Cells
Calculates the aspect (direction of slope) for each cell of a raster. Aspect is measured in degrees from 0 to 360, clockwise from north.
|RasterCellCoercer||Creates individual points or polygons for each cell in a raster, optionally extracting band values as z coordinates or attributes.|
|RasterCellValueCalculator||Evaluates basic arithmetic , minimum, maximum or average operations on the cell values of a pair of rasters.|
|RasterCellValueReplacer||Replaces a range of band values in a raster with a new single value.|
|RasterCellValueRounder||Rounds off raster cell values.|
|RasterSingularCellValueCalculator||Performs basic arithmetic operations on the cell values of a raster against a numeric value.|
|RasterSlopeCalculator||Calculates the slope (maximum rate of change in z) for each cell of a raster.|
Working with Palettes
Creates a palette from an attribute, and adds this palette to all selected bands on a raster.
|RasterPaletteExtractor||Creates a string representation of an existing palette on a raster and saves it to an attribute.|
|RasterPaletteGenerator||Generates a palette out of the selected band(s) of a raster. The output raster will have the selected band(s) replaced by a new band with a palette.|
Alters the interpretation type of raster palettes.
Identifies the palette key that matches a raster band’s nodata value, and sets a value on it.
|RasterPaletteRemover||Removes selected palette(s) from raster features.|
|RasterPaletteResolver||Resolves the palette(s) on a raster by replacing cell values with their corresponding palette values. Palette values with multiple components, such as RGB, are broken down and the individual values assigned to multiple, newly-added bands.|
|RasterCheckpointer||Sets a checkpoint in the raster processing which forces previous processing to occur immediately. Once complete, it saves the current state to disk.|
|RasterConsumer||Requests the tile(s) from the raster geometry but no actual operations are performed on the tile(s).|
|RasterExtractor||Serializes the geometry of the feature into the Blob Attribute based on the selected writer format.|
|RasterNumericCreator||Creates a feature with a raster of the specified size with a numeric value and sends it into the workspace for processing. It is useful for creating a very large image with a user-specified width and height.|
|RasterReplacer||Replaces the geometry of the feature with the geometry held in the Blob Attribute. The blob is decoded according to the selected raster format.|
|RasterRGBCreator||Creates a feature with a raster of the specified size with an RGB value and sends it into the workspace for processing.|
Selects specific bands and palettes of a raster for subsequent transformer operations.
Vectors and Rasters
|ImageRasterizer||Creates a raster representation of vector or point cloud input features, using the fme_color attribute over a solid background fill for vector features. Point clouds may be rendered using their color or intensity components.|
|NumericRasterizer||Draws input point, line and polygon features onto a numeric raster filled with the background value. The Z coordinates of the input vector features are used to generate pixel values. Features without Z coordinates will be discarded.|
|MapnikRasterizer||Generates a raster from input vector and raster features, with fine control over symbolization and labeling, using the Mapnik toolkit.|
|PointOnRasterValueExtractor||Extracts the band and palette values from a raster at the location of one or more input points and sets them as attributes on the feature.|
|VectorOnRasterOverlayer||Rasterizes vector or point cloud features onto an existing raster. For vector features the fme_color attribute sets pixel color, and point clouds may be rendered using their color or intensity components.|
The Input port accepts vector or point cloud features to be rasterized. Vector features must have an fme_color attribute. Point clouds must have either a color or intensity component.
The raster drawn according to parameter selections.
Invalid features will be routed to the <Rejected> port.
Rejected features will have an fme_rejection_code attribute with one of the following values:
Rejected Feature Handling: can be set to either terminate the translation or continue running when it encounters a rejected feature. This setting is available both as a default FME option and as a workspace parameter.
If the Group By parameter is set to an attribute list, one raster per group will be produced.
Select a level of parallel processing to apply. Default is No Parallelism.
Note: How parallel processing works with FME: see About Parallel Processing for detailed information.
This parameter determines whether or not the transformer should perform the work across parallel processes. If it is enabled, a process will be launched for each group specified by the Group By parameter.
Parallel Processing Levels
For example, on a quad-core machine, minimal parallelism will result in two simultaneous FME processes. Extreme parallelism on an 8-core machine would result in 16 simultaneous processes.
You can experiment with this feature and view the information in the Windows Task Manager and the Workbench Log window.
No: This is the default behavior. Processing will only occur in this transformer once all input is present.
By Group: This transformer will process input groups in order. Changes of the value of the Group By parameter on the input stream will trigger batch processing on the currently accumulating group. This will improve overall speed if groups are large/complex, but could cause undesired behavior if input groups are not truly ordered. Specifically, on a two input-port transformer, "in order" means that an entire group must reach both ports before the next group reaches either port, for the transformer to work as expected. This may take careful consideration in a workspace, and should not be confused with both port's input streams being ordered individually, but not synchronously.
Considerations for Using Input is Ordered By
Using Ordered input can provide performance gains in some scenarios, however, it is not always preferable, or even possible. Consider the following when using it, with both one- and two-input transformers.
Single Datasets/Feature Types: Are generally the optimal candidates for Ordered processing. If you know that the dataset is correctly ordered by the Group By attribute, using Input is Ordered By can improve performance, depending on the size and complexity of the data.
If the input is coming from a database, using ORDER BY in a SQL statement to have the database pre-order the data can be an extremely effective way to improve performance. Consider using a Database Readers with a SQL statement, or the SQLCreator transformer.
Multiple Datasets/Feature Types: Since all features matching a Group By value need to arrive before any features (of any feature type or dataset) belonging to the next group, using Ordering with multiple feature types is more complicated than processing a single feature type.
Multiple feature types and features from multiple datasets will not generally naturally occur in the correct order.
One approach is to send all features through a Sorter, sorting on the expected Group By attribute. The Sorter is a feature-holding transformer, collecting all input features, performing the sort, and then releasing them all. They can then be sent through an appropriate filter (TestFilter, AttributeFilter, GeometryFilter, or others), which are not feature-holding, and will release the features one at a time to the transformer using Input is Ordered By, now in the expected order.
The processing overhead of sorting and filtering may negate the performance gains you will get from using Input is Ordered By. In this case, using Group By without using Input is Ordered By may be the equivalent and simpler approach.
In all cases when using Input is Ordered By, if you are not sure that the incoming features are properly ordered, they should be sorted (if a single feature type), or sorted and then filtered (for more than one feature or geometry type).
As with many scenarios, testing different approaches in your workspace with your data is the only definitive way to identify performance gains.
Select a method of defining output raster size:
|Number of Columns (cells)||If Size Specification is RowsColumns, enter the width of the output raster in cells (pixels).|
|Number of Rows (cells)||If Size Specification is RowsColumns, enter the height of the output raster in cells (pixels).|
|X Cell Spacing||If Size Specification is CellSize, enter the width in ground units of a single cell (pixel).|
|Y Cell Spacing||If Size Specification is CellSize, enter the height in ground units of a single cell (pixel).|
Select an interpretation for the output raster. Options include:
|Alpha Value||Set a value for alpha bands, between 0 and 1, where 0 is fully transparent and 1 is fully opaque.|
Sets the background color for the raster.
Click the color picker to the right of the text field, or edit the contents of the field directly.
The color must be specified as <red>,<green>,<blue> where each of <red>, <green>, and <blue> is a number between 0 and 1.
|Background Alpha Value||Sets the background value for any alpha bands on the raster. It must be a number between 0 and 1, where 0 is fully transparent and 1 is fully opaque.|
|Fill Background with Nodata||If Yes, the background color will also be flagged as the nodata value for each raster band.|
|Anti-Aliasing||If Yes, the output lines will be smoothed using an anti-aliasing algorithm.|
The Tolerance parameter is the maximum normalized distance from a line segment or polygon vertex to a pixel to be rendered.
For example a tolerance of 1.0 will draw all pixels touched by the input vector line, while a tolerance of 0.0 will draw only those pixels where the input vector line passes directly through their center.
Tolerance can only be selected when anti-aliasing is set to No.
If Use input data ground extents, the extents are not explicitly specified, and the output raster extents will be determined by the union of the bounding boxes of the valid input vector features.
If Specify ground extents, the remaining Ground Extents parameters are used to specify the extents of the output raster.
The output raster will be clipped to the specified extents.
|Minimum X||This specifies the minimum x value of the output raster. It is used when the Ground Extents parameter is set to Specify ground extents.|
|Minimum Y||This specifies the minimum y value of the output raster. It is used when the Ground Extents parameter is set to Specify ground extents.|
|Maximum X||This specifies the maximum x value of the output raster. It is used when the Ground Extents parameter is set to Specify ground extents.|
|Maximum Y||This specifies the maximum y value of the output raster. It is used when the Ground Extents parameter is set to Specify ground extents.|
When drawing point clouds on color bands, the Input Component specifies which component of the point should be used to set the color of the raster pixel.
If Color, the points in the cloud must have a color component.
If Intensity, the points in the cloud must have an intensity component. The intensity component is converted to a color using a grayscale continuum, where the minimum intensity in the cloud is black and the maximum intensity in the cloud is white.
Editing Transformer Parameters
Using a set of menu options, transformer parameters can be assigned by referencing other elements in the workspace. More advanced functions, such as an advanced editor and an arithmetic editor, are also available in some transformers. To access a menu of these options, click beside the applicable parameter. For more information, see Transformer Parameter Menu Options.
There are several ways to define a value for use in a Transformer. The simplest is to simply type in a value or string, which can include functions of various types such as attribute references, math and string functions, and workspace parameters. There are a number of tools and shortcuts that can assist in constructing values, generally available from the drop-down context menu adjacent to the value field.
Using the Text Editor
The Text Editor provides a convenient way to construct text strings (including regular expressions) from various data sources, such as attributes, parameters, and constants, where the result is used directly inside a parameter.
Using the Arithmetic Editor
The Arithmetic Editor provides a convenient way to construct math expressions from various data sources, such as attributes, parameters, and feature functions, where the result is used directly inside a parameter.
Set values depending on one or more test conditions that either pass or fail.
Expressions and strings can include a number of functions, characters, parameters, and more - whether entered directly in a parameter or constructed using one of the editors.
|These functions manipulate and format strings.|
|A set of control characters is available in the Text Editor.|
|Math functions are available in both editors.|
|These operators are available in the Arithmetic Editor.|
|These return primarily feature-specific values.|
|FME and workspace-specific parameters may be used.|
|Working with User Parameters||Create your own editable parameters.|
|FME Licensing Level||FME Professional Edition and above|
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